PartⅠ Writing (30 minutes)
Direction:For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition entitled Education Pays based on the statistics provided in the chart below (Weekly earnings of 2010). Please write at least 120words but no more than 180 words.
Education: A Worthy Investment
Weekly earnings in 2010($)
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
Part Ⅱ Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning) (15 minutes)
Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer sheet 1. For questions 1-7, choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). For questions 8-10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.
Should Sugar Be Regulated like Alcohol and Tobacco?
Sugar poses enough health risks that it should be considered a controlled substance just like alcohol and tobacco, argue a team of researchers from the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF).
In an opinion piece called “The Toxic(毒性的) Truth About Sugar” published Feb.1 in Nature, Robert Lustig, Laura Schmidt and Claire Brindis argue that it’s wrong to consider sugar just “empty calories.” They write: “There is nothing empty about these calories. A growing body of scientific evidence is showing that fructose(果糖) can trigger processes that lead to liver toxicity and a host of other chronic diseases. A little is not a problem, but a lot kills — slowly.”
Almost everyone’s heard of — or personally experienced — the well-known sugar high, so perhaps the comparison between sugar and alcohol or tobacco shouldn’t come as a surprise. But it’s doubtful that Americans will look favorably upon regulating their favorite vice. We’re a nation that’s sweet on sugar: the average U.S. adult downs 22 teaspoons of sugar a day, according to the American Heart Association, and surveys have found that teens swallow 34 teaspoons.
To counter our consumption, the authors advocate taxing sugary foods and controlling sales to kids under 17. Already, 17% of U.S. children and teens are obese (肥胖), and across the world the sugar intake(摄入) has increased three times in the past 50 years. The increase has helped create a global obesity plague that contributes to 35 million annual deaths worldwide from noninfectious diseases including cancer, heart disease and diabetes. Linda Matzigkeit, a senior vice president at Children’s Healthcare, said “We have to do something about this or our country is in danger. It’s not good if your state has the second-highest obesity rate. Obese children turn into obese adults.”
“There are good calories and bad calories, just as there are good fats and bad fats, good amino acids(氨基酸) and bad amino acids,” Lustig, director of the Weight Assessment for Teen and Child Health program at UCSF, said in a statement. “But sugar is toxic beyond its calories.”
The food industry tries to imply that “a calorie is a calorie is a calorie,” says Kelly Brownell, director of the Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity at Yale University. “But this and other research suggests there is something different about sugar,” says Brownell.
The UCSF report emphasizes the metabolic(新陈代谢) effects of sugar. Excess sugar can alter metabolism, raise blood pressure, affect the signaling of hormones and damage the liver — outcomes that sound suspiciously similar to what can happen after a person drinks too much alcohol. Schmidt, co-chair of UCSF’s Community Engagement and Health Policy program, noted on CNN: “When you think about it, this actually makes a lot of sense. Alcohol, after all, is simply made from sugar. Where does vodka come from? Sugar.”
But there are also other areas of impact that researchers have investigated: the effect of sugar on the brain and how liquid calories are interpreted differently by the body than solids. Research has suggested that sugar activates the same reward pathways in the brain as traditional drugs of abuse like morphine or heroin. No one is claiming the effect of sugar is quite that strong, but, says Brownell, “it helps confirm what people tell you sometimes, that they hunger for sugar and have withdrawal symptoms when they stop eating it.”
There’s also something particularly tricky about sugary drinks. “When calories come in liquids, the body doesn’t feel as full,” says Brownell. “People are getting more of their calories than ever before from sugared drinks.”
Other countries, including France, Greece and Denmark, impose soda taxes, and the concept is being considered in at least 20 U.S. cities and states. Last summer, Philadelphia came close to passing a 2-cents-per-ounce soda tax. The Rudd Center has been a strong advocate of a more modest 1-cent-per-punce tax. But at least one study, from 2010, has raised doubts that soda taxes would result in significant weight loss: apparently people who are determined to eat — and drink — unhealthily will find ways to do it. Teens — no surprise — are good at finding ways to get the things they can’t have, so state policies banning all sugar-sweetened drinks from public schools and providing only water, milk or 100% fruit juices haven’t had the intended effect of steering kids away from drinking sugared drinks: the average teen consumes about 300 calories per day — that’s nearly 15% of his daily calories — in sweetened drinks, and the food and drink industry is only too happy to feed this need.
Ultimately, regulating sugar will prove particularly tricky because it goes beyond health concerns; sugar, for so many people, is love. A plate of cut-up vegetables just doesn’t pack the same emotional a cupcake and not an apple as an after-school treat today. We don’t do that regularly — it’s the first time this school year, actually — and that’s what made it special. As a society, could we ever reach the point where we’d think apples — not a cupcake — are something to get excited over? Says Brindis, one of the report’s authors and director of UCSF’s Philip R.Lee Institute for Health Policy Studies: “We recognize that there are cultural and celebratory aspects of sugar. Changing these patterns is very complicated.”
For inroads (进展) to be made, say the authors in their statement, people have to be better educated about the hazards of sugar and agree that something’s got to change:
Many of the interventions(干预) that have reduced alcohol and tobacco consumption can be models for addressing the sugar problem, such as imposing special sales taxes, controlling access, and tightening licensing requirements on vendingmachines(自动售货机) and snack-bars sell high sugar products in schools and workplaces.
“We’re not talking prohibition,” Schmidt said. “We’re not advocating a major imposition of the government into people’s lives. We’re talking about gentle ways to make sugar consumption slightly less convenient, thereby moving people away from the concentrated does. What we want is to actually increase people’s choices by making foods that aren’t loaded with sugar comparatively easier and cheaper to get.”
1. Why do some researchers think sugar should be considered “a controlled substance”?
[A] It contains nothing but empty calories.
[B] It is as harmful as morphine and heroin.
[C] It works the same way as alcohol and tobacco in the human body.
[D] Excessive intake of sugar results in liver toxicity and various diseases.
2. What might be Americans’ attitude towards government regulation of sugar consumption?
[A] Enthusiastic. [B] Indifferent. [C] Disapproving. [D] Supportive.
3. What is a consequence of excessive sugar intake worldwide?
[A] It contributes to35 million noninfectious disease-related deaths a year.
[B] It has increased the death toll nearly three times in the past 50 years.
[C] It contributes to the rise of prices of sugar and sugary foods.
[D] It has increased the global obesity rate to some 17 percent.
4. The food industry tries to relieve the public worry about sugar intake by suggesting that .
[A] sugar is no more than a source of energy
[B] sugar is not harmful like alcohol or tobacco
[C] the hazard of sugar to the body is exaggerated
[D] the consumption of sugar is easily controllable
5. According to Brownell, liquid sugar .
[A] is especially attractive to young children
[B] is much easier and quicker to absorb than solid sugar
[C] effectively stimulates people’s appetite
[D] increases your calorie intake without your knowing it
6. What does the author think of the practice of imposing sugar taxes?
[A] It will harm the food and drink industry. [B] It is unlikely to yield the intended effect.
[C] It is likely to alter people’s eating habits. [D] It can steer kids away from sugar foods.
7. Regulating sugar will prove tricky because .
[A] people consume sugar in large quantities [B] nothing has been found to replace sugar
[C] sugar may convey a sense of love [D] many foods will become tasteless
8. In order to reduce sugar consumption, education should be conducted to raise people’s awareness of its .
9. To address the sugar problem, the author suggests that the licensing requirements on vending machines and snack-bars selling high sugar products be .
10. A gentle way to steer people away from sugar is to make inexpensive, low-sugar foods
Part Ⅲ Listening Comprehension (35 minutes)
Directions:In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the question will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A),B),C) and D), and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2with a single line through the center.
11. [A] He needs another week for the painting. [B] The painting was completed just in time.
[C] The building won’t open until next week. [D] His artistic work has been well received.
12. [A] Go camping. [B] Rent a tent.
[C] Decorate his house. [D] organize a party.
13. [A] She talked with Mr. Wright on the phone. [B] She is about to call Mr. Wright’s secretary.
[C] She will see Mr. Wright at lunch time. [D] She failed to reach Mr. Wright.
14. [A] He is actually very hardworking. [B] He has difficulty finishing his project.
[C] He needs to spend more time in the lab. [D] He seldom tells the truth about himself.
15. [A] Rules restricting smoking. [B] Ways to quit smoking.
[C] Smokers’ health problems. [D] Hazards of passive smoking.
16. [A] He is out of town all morning. [B] He is tied up in family matters.
[C] He has been writing a report. [D] He has got meetings to attend.
17. [A] He is not easy-going. [B] He is the speakers’ boss.
[C] He is not at home this weekend. [D] He seldom invites people to his home.
18. [A] Take a break. [B] Refuel his car.
[C] Ask the way. [D] Have a cup of coffee.
Questions 19 to 21 are based on the passage you have just heard.
19. [A] They are as good as historical films. [B] They give youngsters a thrill .
[C] They have greatly improved. [D] They are better than comics on film.
20. [A] The effects were very good. [B] The acting was just so-so.
[C] The plot was too complicated. [D] The characters were lifelike.
21. [A] They triumphed ultimately over evil in the battle.
[B] They played the same role in War of the Worlds.
[C] They are popular figures among young people.
[D] They are two leading characters in the film.
Questions 22 to 25 are based on the passage you have just heard.
22. [A] It is scheduled on Thursday night. [B] It is supposed to last nine weeks.
[C] It takes place once a week. [D] It usually starts at six.
23. [A] To make good use of her spare time in the evening.
[B] To meet the requirements of her in-service training.
[C] To improve her driving skills as quickly as possible.
[D] To get some basic knowledge about car maintenance.
24. [A] Participate in group discussions. [B] Take turns to make presentations.
[C] Listen to the teacher’s explanation. [D] Answer the teacher’s questions.
25. [A] Most of them are female. [B] Some have a part-time job.
[C] They plan to buy a new car. [D] A few of them are old chaps.
Direction: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on theAnswer Sheet with a single line through the center.
Questions 26 to 29 are based on the passage you have just heard.
26. [A] She is not good at making friends. [B] She is not well off.
[C] She enjoys company. [D] She likes to go to concerts alone.
27. [A] Their similar social status. [B] Their interdependence.
[C] Their common interest. [D] Their identical character.
28. [A] Invite Pat to a live concert. [B] Buy some gifts for Pat’s kids.
[C] Help take care of Pat’s kids. [D] Pay for Pat’s season tickets.
29. [A] It can develop between people with a big different in income.
[B] It can be maintained among people of different age groups.
[C] It cannot last long without similar family background.
[D] It cannot be sustained when friends move far apart.
Questions 30o 32are based on the passage you have just heard.
30. [A] Priority of students’ academic achievements.
[B] Equal education opportunities to all children.
[C] Social equality between teachers and students.
[D] Respect for students’ individuality.
31. [A] Efficient. [B] Complicated.
[C] Lengthy. [D] Democratic.
32. [A] To help them acquire hands-on experience.
[B] To try to cut down its operational expenses.
[C] To provide part-time jobs for needy students.
[D] To enable them to learn to take responsibility.
Questions 33to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard.
33. [A] The best way to work through a finger maze.
[B] Individual doing better in front of an audience.
[C] Researchers having contributed greatly to psychology.
[D] Improvements on the classification of human behavior.
34. [A] When you feel encouraged by the audience.
[B] When you try to figure out a confusing game.
[C] When you already know how to do something.
[D] When you compete with other people in a group.
35. [A] Practicing constantly. [B] Working by oneself.
[B] Learning by doing. [D] Using proven methods.
Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea. When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks numbered from 36 to 43 with the exact words you have just heard. For blanks numbered from 44 to 46 you are required to fill in the missing information. For these blank, you can either use the exact words you have just heard or write down the main points in your own words. Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have written.
American today have different eating habits than they had in the past. There is a wide (36)
of food available. They have a broader (37) of nutrition(营养), so they buy more fresh fruit and (38) than ever before. At the same time, Americans (39)
increasing quantities of sweets and sodas.
Statistics show that the way people live (40) the way they eat. American lifestyles have changed. There are now growing numbers of people who live alone, (41) parents and children, and double-income families. These changing lifestyles are (42) for the increasing number of people who must (43) meals or sometimes simply go without them. Many Americans have less time than ever before to spend preparing food. (44)
. Moreover, Americans eat out nearly four times a week on average.
It is easy to study the amounts and kinds of food that people consume. (45)
. This information not only tells us what people eating, but also tells us about the changes in attitudes and tastes. (46)
. Instead, chicken, turkey and fish have become more popular. Sales of these foods have greatly increased in recent years.
PartⅣ Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth) (25 minutes)
Direction: In this section, there is a passage with 10 blanks. You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word blank following the passage. Read the passage through carefully before making your choices. Each choice in the blank is identified by a letter. Please make the corresponding letter for each item onAnswer sheet 2 with a single line through the center. UUUYou may not use any of the words in the bank more than once.
Questions 47 to 56 are based on the following passage.
When Carly Fiorina became Hewlett-Packard’s first female chief executive officer, the existence of her househusband, Frank Fiorina, who had retired early from AT&T to support her career, was a mini-sensation(小轰动); now this arrangement isn’t UUU47 UUU at all. Seven of the 18 women who are UUU48 UUU CEOs, of Fortune 500 companies — including Xerox’s Ursula Burns and PepsiCo’s Indra Nooyi — have, or at some point have had, a stay-at-home husband. So do scores of UUU49 UUU CEOs of smaller companies and women in other senior executive jobs.
This role change is UUU50 UUU more and more as women edge past men at work. Women now
UUU51 UUU a majority of jobs in the U.S., including 51.4 percent of managerial and professional UUU52 UUU, according to U.S. Census Bureau data. Sme 23 percent of wives now earn more than their husband. And this earnings trend is more dramatic among younger people. Women 30 and under make more money, on UUU53 UUU, than their malecounterparts(年龄相当的人) in many large cities in the U.S.
During the recent UUU54 UUU, three men lost their jobs for every woman. Many unemployed fathers have ended up caring for their children full-time while their wives are the UUU55 UUUwage earners. The number of men in the U.S. who UUU56 UUU care of children under age five increased to 32 percent in 2010 from 19 percent in 1998, according to Census figures.
Directions:There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A),B),C) and D).You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer sheet 2with a single line through the center.
Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.
I’ve worked in the factories surrounding my hometown every summer since I graduated from high school, but making the transition(转变) between school and full-time blue-collar work during the break never gets any easier. For a student like me who considers any class before noon to be uncivilized, getting to a factory by 6 o’clock each morning is torture. My friends never seem to understand why I’m so relieved to be back at school or that my summer vacation has been anything but a vacation.
There’re few people as self-confident as a college student who has never been out in the real world. People my age always seem to overestimate the value of their time and knowledge. In fact, all the classes did not prepare me for my battles with the machine I ran in the plant, which would jam whenever I absent-mindedly put in a part backward or upside down.
The most stressful thing about blue-collar life is knowing your job could disappear overnight. Issues like downsizing (裁员) and overseas relocation had always seemed distant to me until my co-workers told me that the until I was working in would shut down within six months and move to Mexico, where people would work for 60 cents and hour.
After working 12-hour shifts in a factory, the other options have become only too clear. When I’m back at the university, skipping classes and turning in lazy re-writes seems too irresponsible after seeing what I would be doing without school. All the advice and public-service announcements about the value of an education that used to sound stale now ring true.
These lessons I’m learning, however valuable, are alwaystinged (带有) with sense of guilt. Many people pass their lives in the places I briefly work, spending 30 years where I spend only two months at a time. “This job pays well, but it’s hell on the body,” said one co-worker. “Study hard and keep reading,” she added.
My experiences in the factories have inspired me to make the most of my college years before I enter the real world for good.
57. How did the author look back on his summer days while at college?
[A] They brought him nothing but torture.
[B] They were no holiday for him at all.
[C] They were a relief from his hard work at school.
[D] They offered him a chance to know more people.
58. What does the author say about college students?
[A] They expect too much from the real world.
[B] They have little interest in blue-collar life.
[C] They think too highly of themselves.
[D] They are confident of their future.
59. What, according to the author, is most frustrating for blue-collar workers?
[A] They do not get decent pay. [B] They do not have job security.
[C] They have to work 12-hour shifts. [D] They have to move from place to place.
60. In what important way has the author’s work experience changed him?
[A] He learned to be more practical.
[B] He acquired a sense of urgency.
[C] He came to respect blue-collar workers.
[D] He came to appreciate his college education.
61. Why does the author feel somewhat guilty?
[A] He realizes there is a great divide between his life and that of blue-collar workers.
[B] He looks down upon the mechanical work at the assembly life.
[C] He has not done much to help his co-workers at the factory.
[D] He has stayed at school just for the purpose of escaping from the real world.
Questions 62 to 66 are based on the following passage.
Are people suffering form gadget(小器具) overload? Are they exhausted by the consumer equivalent of the brain fatigue — information overload — that is caused by constant updates of devices and online media?
Underwriters Laboratories issued a report last week that found 48% of consumers “feel high-tech manufacturers bring new products to market faster than people need them.”
There are two possible explanations. The first, obvious one is that the pace ofinnovation(创新) is too fast for consumers. The second, less obvious one is that, innovation is too slow. That is the new offerings companies are pushing out the door every six months or so are me-too products or ones with just a couple of new features. Marketing schedules, not product innovation, are driving the corporate(公司的) train. Manufacturers in American valued “spend to market” more than in other countries, the report found.
Sara Greenstein, Underwriters Laboratories’ chief strategy officer, offered her interpretation of the survey results, “Innovation is too fast only if corners are cut.”
For the high-tech sector, there are a few other interesting finding. Consumers are less concerned about safety in high-tech products than categories like fresh and processed food. But their top safety concerns are emissions and wireless radio waves. Many people, it seems, are uneasy living in a thickening cloud of radio waves from mobile phone towers and the gadgets they communicate with.
A finding that was a bit surprising is that to consumers, the inner parts of high-tech devices do apparently matter. Some 55% of consumers, according to the report, said they are “more” concerned about high-tech components come from than where the product was assembled.”
The report doesn’t really say how that information would affect consumer buying decisions. It could be complicated. Manufacturing companies on average rely on more than 35 contract suppliers around the world to create a single product. That number would be higher for a smartphone or laptop.
But maybe some sort of supply-chain labeling showing where parts come from in a product? “We’re working on it,” Ms. Greenstein said.
62. What is the finding in Underwriters Laboratories’ report about many consumers?
[A] They are exhausted by the information overload.
[B] They are tired of the constant updating of devices.
[C] They feel products are updated faster than needed.
[D] They have difficulty following high-tech innovations.
63. What does the author mean by “me-too products”?
[A] Products with on substantial difference. [B] Products tailored to individual users.
[C] Products everyone is eager to possess. [D] Products companies compete a make.
64. What do American businesses give priority to when marketing their products?
[A] The constant updating of their technology.
[B] The speed of putting them on the market.
[C] The quality of their new products.
[D] The pace of product innovation.
65. What is the consumers’ chief concern about high-tech products?
[A] User-friendliness. [B] Product quality.
[C] Place of assembly. [D] Radio emissions.
66. Why does the author suggest supply-chain labeling?
[A] It guarantees the safe shipping of products.
[B] It promotes the competitiveness of the supplier.
[C] Consumers care about where components are made.
[D] Consumers tend to buy products they are familiar with.
Part Ⅴ Cloze (15 minutes)
Directions: There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked A),B),C) and D) on the right side of the paper. You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer sheet 2 with a single line through the center.
67. [A] about
68. [A] lonely
69. [A] so
70. [A] transfer
71. [A] relative
Try to imagine what it is like to live without electricity. It is boring, UUU67 UUU one thing — no television, on MP3 player, no video games. And you feel UUU68 UUU and disconnected as well — no computer, no Internet, no mobile phone. You can read books, of course — UUU69 UUU at night you won’t have light, other than the flicker(闪烁) of firewood. And about that firewood — you or someone in your family had to UUU70 UUU it during the day, taking you
away from more UUU71 UUU work or schooling,
72. [A] to
73. [A] seeking out
[B] giving up
[C] throwing off
[D] carrying away
74. [A] harmful
75. [A] although
77. [A] desperately
78. [A] engage
79. [A] continent
80. [A] solemn
81. [A] that
82. [A] Unless
83. [A] global
85. [A] solution
86. [A] interrupts
and in more parts of the world, exposing you 72 UUU danger. That same firewood is used to
cook dinner, UUU73 UUU smoke that can turn the
air inside your home far more UUU74 UUUthan that breathed in an industrial city. You may lack access to modern drugs UUU75 UUU the nearest
hospital does not have continuous UUU76 UUUto keep the medicine refrigerated. You
are UUU77 UUU poor
— and the lack of electricity helps to UUU78 UUU that you’ll stay that way.
That is life for the 1.3 billion people around that UUU79 UUU who lack access to the
grid(电网). It is a UUU80 UUU problem of the developing world and the countryside — more than 95% of UUU81
Without electricity are either in sub-Saharan Africa or developing Asia, and 84% live in rural areas. UUU82 UUU it hasn’t gotten the
attention that UUU83 UUU problems like HIV/AIDS and water shortage have
UUU84 UUU in recent years, lack of power remains
a major UUU85 UUU to any progress in the world’s development.
“Lacking access to electricity UUU86 UUU health, well-being and income,” says Fatih Birol, the chief economist of the International Energy Agency. “It’s a problem the world has to pay attention to.”
Part Ⅵ Translation (5 minutes)
Directions: Complete the sentences by translating into English the Chinese given in brackets. Please write your translation onAnswer Sheet 2.
87. David turned away and walked quickly down the street,
88. It is man’s intellect (才使他区别于其他高等动物).
89. I read the book last week, but now it is (哪儿也找不到了).
90. Hardly had John finished his introductory remark (他就被听众打断了).
91. If the reaction were to take place, (巨大的能量就会被释放出来).
What is shown in the chart above is that those people with high degree earn more than those with lower. For example, staff with master’s degree receive a better payment than those with bachelor’s degree, according to a survey of the payment to the employee. These survey indicates that education degree does have a relationship with earnings, contrary to the recent theory of useless education.
Recently, there is a heated discussion about the significance of the education. Some people hold a view that higher education is useless since college education cannot mesh with the social needs. Some think that higher education is indispensable if you want to go far in both your studies and life. Now that survey has proved which part is wiser.
As for me, I definitely support the view that education is necessary for people’s life. Reading can not only make me survive well in this society with fierce competition but also help me make sense of life. I pursue for it for my whole life.
1-5 DCAAD 6-7 BC 8.hazards 9. tightened 10. comparatively easier to get
11-15 BADAA 16-20 DBBCA 21-25 DCDCA 26-30 BCDAC 31-35 DDBCB
36. selection 37. knowledge 38. vegetables 39. purchase 40. determines
41. single 42. responsible 43. rush
44. Partly as a result of this limited time, over half of all American homes now have microwave ovens
45. The United States Department of Agriculture and the food industry collect sales statistics and keep accurate records
46. Red meat, which used to be the most popular choice for dinner ,is no longer an American favorite.
47. O 48. D 49. G 50. J 51. H 52. K 53. B 54. M 55. L 56. N
57-61 BCBDA 62-66 CABBC
67-71 DABDC 72-76 ACADB 77-81 ACDBC 82-86 BADCB
87. completely ignoring her presence
88. that separate him from other higher animals
89. nowhere to find
90. when he was interrupted by the audience
91. a tremendous amount of energy would be released